What is biomass gasification used for?
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What is biomass gasification used for?


A fuel or other organic waste or item is gasified to create a gas known as producer gas. A number of thermal and chemical reactions, like oxidation and reduction, are involved in the process. Other goods come in the forms of gas, tar, charcoal, etc. The primary gases are those created during the gasification process. These gases may go by various names, such as syngas, generator gas, wood gas, or gas.

What is biomass gasification?

Any organic substance that is renewable and in the form of biomass includes waste from forestry operations, animal manure, and municipal organic solid waste. Gasification is the process of converting these resources at high temperatures into fuels and gases. Biomass gasification is the manufacture of biofuels from organic, renewable feedstocks.

In this procedure, biomass is heated to 800-900 °C in a gasifier with an oxidant after being dehydrated at 150 °C. The dried residue deteriorates as a result of the increased heat, and the complex solid hydrocarbons subsequently disintegrate into flammable gases like hydrogen and syngas. These gases can be utilized as fuel once they have been isolated and cleaned.

What are the applications of the biomass gasification process?

a) Widespread applications (500 kW and above)

These gasifier applications are frequently categorized as having a greater power range of 500 kW and above. They must therefore be expensive and constructed and delivered with special care. These applications require pricey, well-equipped gasifiers, such as fixed-bed machines. The designs must be developed by professional construction firms and senior engineering experts because to their complexity. The machinery is very configurable and totally automated.

b) Smaller applications (30 – 500 kW)

These programs are commonly utilized in small- to medium-sized forestry and agricultural operations. Typically, they are employed in power production, sawmills, and the wood-cutting business. They can be used to provide electricity to far-off places. As it requires expensive machinery and supplies of materials like fuel for the gasifier, manufacturing and installation can be somewhat pricey. Costs of production may be decreased by increased demand for such equipment. It also has an impact on part standardization. The type and quantity of fuel used in various applications, as well as the degree of automation, all affect the predicted cost. Without including equipment, the cost of building reactors alone might be between $300 and $800/kW.

c) Small-scale applications (7 – 30 kW)

This application’s size is appropriate for villages in several poor nations. It should be inexpensive to operate and maintain, and the cost should be low. It should also be trustworthy and financially viable. The layout must be uncomplicated. Additionally, the gasifiers used for these applications need to undergo rigorous testing.

d) Micro applications (1 – 7 kW)

The majority of farmers in developing nations irrigate their fields using this range. The equipment needs to be straightforward, reasonably priced, lightweight, and portable. Ideally, such precise requirements can be satisfied by locally produced charcoal gasifiers.


What industries is the biomass gasification process used in?
1) .Burning in heating or boiler applications

The simplest application is the combustion of raw gas in heating applications like boilers or kilns after eliminating dust and particles because the gas stays hot and doesn’t produce tar issues. All varieties of gasifiers can compete in this market. Low tar content is not required for these applications if the wall temperature of the gas pipe system can be maintained above the level of tar condensation.

2) .Operation of Gas Turbines

Up to 850°C is the maximum operating temperature for gas turbines. Some of the substances created from the biomass’s ash-forming components exit the gasifier in a gaseous or liquid state. Additionally, significant deposits and corrosion may develop at low concentrations of these substances in the hot gas entering the turbine (e.g. on the turbine blades). This issue might be resolved by running the gas turbine at low inlet temperatures, cleaning the gas to remove problematic compounds, or gasifying under circumstances that decrease the creation of these compounds.

3) .coal-to-gas co-firing

Due to the relatively low overall cost caused by the existence of power cycles in coal-fired power plants, co-firing applications are most likely the most intriguing prospect for increased market penetration at present time. The additional benefit of co-firing is that biomass fuels and coal are combined before or during combustion, and biomass residual ash is not combined with coal ash and already has a market as a building material. Additionally, because the gas is used thermally, there is no tar problem, and the technical risk is minimal.

4) .Using gas in tandem with coal

Similar to how coal and natural gas can be burned together directly in turbines, boilers, or duct burners, fuel gas from biomass gasification can also be used as a re-firing fuel. This may greatly increase the market possibilities for biomass gasification. According to calculations, 25 percent methane added to the gasifier’s fuel gas will dramatically raise the flame temperature while lowering the calorific value.
5) .Gasification systems for engine operation

For engine operation, the dust content in the gas should be as low as possible. Spark ignition engines can use 100% of the production gas. Compression engines (diesel engines) require at least 10-20% of diesel fuel to ignite the gas. In both cases, the engine rating will be reduced. A spark ignition engine designed for gasoline will lose about 45% of its power, while a diesel engine will lose about 30%.

6) .Methanol, hydrogen and Fischer-Tropsch

These chemicals as well as energy vectors can be used in several applications or can be further upgraded into other useful products. They can all be produced via synthesis gas (CO + H2) that has been the subject of extensive investigations and commercial industrial processes based on fossil based synthesis gas exist. The advantage of these vectors is that they can be either used in fuel cells for electricity or transport applications, or alternatively, they can be processed to alternatively, they can be processed to liquid transport fuel additives such as dimethylether (DME).

What are the five main advantages of biomass gasification?
1. Making a product that would otherwise be trash into one that is valuable

2.lessens the requirement for landfill area for the disposal of solid garbage

3.Lowers landfill methane emissions

4.Lessen the possibility of landfills contaminating the groundwater

5.Make ethanol from sources other than food.